In-situ studies of surfaces in action
Joost W.M. Frenken
Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, The Netherlands
Modern surface science techniques have matured to the stage that it is now possible to make 'live', in-situ observations of the surfaces of materials while they are active in practical processes under relevant conditions and to interpret the observations on a fundamental, atomic-scale level. In this talk, I will highlight this development with examples from the fields of (i) heterogeneous catalysis, (ii) the growth of graphene and related materials, and (iii) ion erosion. For these measurements, we have been forced to develop a novel generation of dedicated instruments, in particular scanning probe microscopes and surface x-ray diffraction equipment, that combine an atomic-scale view of the surfaces of interest with the sometimes harsh conditions of the processes under study.
 A new role for steps in catalysis, B.L.M. Hendriksen, M.D. Ackermann, S.C. Bobaru, I. Popa, S. Ferrer and J.W.M. Frenken, Nature Chemistry 2 (2010) 730.
 Graphene formation on metal surfaces investigated by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy, G. Dong, D.W. van Baarle, M.J. Rost and J.W.M. Frenken, New. J. Phys. 14 (2012) 053033.