YOUth Data Collection

Collected data concern questionnaires on lifestyle, behavior, parenting, health, personality, use of (social) media, child development etc., cognitive measurements, 3D-ultrasound sweeps of the foetal brain, EEG, eyetracking, computer tasks, (f)MRI, etc. Furthermore, (umbilical) blood samples, buccal swabs, saliva and hair samples are collected at each visit, and stored in the UMC Utrecht Biobank. A complete overview of the data collection can be found below. Find out more by watching a short video and statistics about our data collection.

YOUth Baby & Child
20 weeks pregnant

Child

3D-echo:

All pregnant women are asked to visit us at 20 and 30 weeks gestational age for an advanced fetal neurosonograpy to study fetal brain development. Using ultrasound we scan the fetal brain for 3D volumes and in addition the fetal biometry (abdominal circumference, head circumference and femur length)  and Doppler studies (cerebral medial artery, umbilical artery and the uterine arteries) are performed. More information.

Mother

Biological material

  • Blood
  • Buccal

Questionnaires

  • Adult Self Report (ASR)
  • Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)
  • Demographics: household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (or updates in wave Rondom 0)
  • Family illness: medical & psychiatric problems of first degree family members
  • Food Frequency Questionnaire Pregnancy: Food intake questionnaire (FFQ) focussed on intake of energy, macronutrients, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, B-vitamins and folac acid during pregnancy
  • General health questionnaire
  • Lifestyle: vitamins, medication, exposure during pregnancy, alcohol, smoking, substance (ab)use, physical activity, sleep (PSQI)
  • List of longterm stressful life events selected by GenerationR
  • Major life events in the past 12 months
  • Periconceptual health

Father

Biological materials

  • Blood
  • Buccal

Questionnaires

  • Adult Self Report (ASR)
  • Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)
  • Demographics: household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (or updates in wave Rondom 0)
  • Family illness: medical & psychiatric problems of first degree family members
  • General health questionnaire
  • Lifestyle: vitamins, medication, exposure during pregnancy, alcohol, smoking, substance (ab)use, physical activity, sleep (PSQI)
  • Major life events in the past 12 months
30 weeks pregnant

Child

3D-echo:
All pregnant women are asked to visit us at 20 and 30 weeks gestational age for an advanced fetal neurosonograpy to study fetal brain development. Using ultrasound we scan the fetal brain for 3D volumes and in addition the fetal biometry (abdominal circumference, head circumference and femur length)  and Doppler studies (cerebral medial artery, umbilical artery and the uterine arteries) are performed. More information.

Mother

Biological material

  • Hair

Questionnaires

  • Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)
  • Coping with situations - Utrechtse Coping Lijst (UCL)
  • Lifestyle during pregnancy: selection of questions from DEMO and LFST
  • Major life events in the past 12 months
  • Personality questionnaire (NEO-FFI-3)
  • Portrait values questionnaire - revised (PVQ-RR)
  • Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)
  • Work demographics

Father

Questionnaires

  • Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)
  • Coping with situations - Utrechtse Coping Lijst (UCL)
  • Major life events in the past 12 months
  • Personality questionnaire (NEO-FFI-3)
  • Portrait values questionnaire - revised (PVQ-RR)
  • Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)
  • Work demographics
    Around birth

    Child

    Biological materials

    • Cordblood

    Mother

    Questionnaires

    • Labour and Birth
    Around 5 months old

    Child

    Biological materials

    • Buccal

    EEG

    • Coherence:
      To understand how the connectivity among different areas of the infant brain develops. Infants passively watch 60-second video clips depicting singing women or moving toys while we measure their EEG. This task lasts 3 minutes. More information. 
    • Face house:
      To understand how the infant brain differentially responds to viewing pictures of faces vs. houses. Infants passively watch pictures of (neutral) faces and pictures of typical Dutch houses while we measure their EEG. This task lasts 4 minutes. More information.  

    Eyetracking

    • Infant Face Popout: 
      One of the key research findings that make humans an extraordinary social species is that human faces, above anything else, grab and hold our attention. In adults the power of faces has been widely demonstrated. But already in infancy this interest in faces is apparent. More information.
    • Infant Pro Gap: 
      The Gap-overlap task (adapted from Elsabbagh, Fernandes et al. (2013)) is a gaze contingent paradigm that measures visual attention shifting between a central and a peripheral stimulus. This is thought to be a key sub process underlying behavioral control. More information.
    • Infant Social Gaze:
      The social gaze task is an eye-tracking task at all waves (except pregnancy) that measures a subject’s sensitivity to another person’s gaze direction as a possible cue to predict the location of a next event. Sensitivity to gaze direction is taken as a marker of social competence. More information.

    Parent Child Interaction

    Parent child interaction (PCI) is recorded to allow researchers to code qualitative aspects of the observed interaction between parent and child based on explicitly defined behaviors. The PCI consists of age appropriate structured tasks that include a common mildly stressful event (clean-up and a teaching task), and a pleasant event (unstructured free play). The PCI tasks take about 15 minutes to complete. More Information. 
     

    Questionnaires

    Mother

    • Demographics: household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (or updates in wave Rondom 0)
    • Lifestyle: nutrition, alcohol, smoking, substance (ab)use
    • Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
    • Major life events (updates since wave 30 weeks pregnant)
    • Social Support List (SSL)

    Father

    • Demographics: household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (or updates in wave Rondom 0)
    • Lifestyle: alcohol, smoking, substance (ab)use
    • Major life events (updates since wave 30 weeks pregnant)

    Parent/tutor

    Questionnaires about child

    • Ages and Stages Questionnaire - Social Emotional (ASQ-SE)
    • Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R SF)
    • Daily care of the child
    • Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)
    • Language situation: Spoken language in child's environment
    • Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index (NOSI)/Parental Stress Index (PSI) - subscale Sense of competence
    • Medical questionnaire on child's health
    • Parenting: Comprehensive Early Childhood Parenting Questionnaire (CECPAQ)
    Around 10 months old

    Child

    Biological material

    • Buccal

    EEG

    • Coherence:
      To understand how the connectivity among different areas of the infant brain develops. Infants passively watch 60-second video clips depicting singing women or moving toys while we measure their EEG. This task lasts 3 minutes. More information.
    • Face house:
      To understand how the infant brain differentially responds to viewing pictures of faces vs. houses. Infants passively watch pictures of (neutral) faces and pictures of typical Dutch houses while we measure their EEG. This task lasts 4 minutes. More information.
    • Face emotion:
      To understand how the infant brain differentially responds to viewing faces with different facial expressions (happy and fear).  Infants passively watch pictures of happy or fearful faces while we measure their EEG. Note that the same faces but with neutral expressions have been presented in face-house task. This task lasts 4 minutes. More information. 

    Eyetracking

    • Infant Face Popout: 
      One of the key research findings that make humans an extraordinary social species is that human faces, above anything else, grab and hold our attention. In adults the power of faces has been widely demonstrated. But already in infancy this interest in faces is apparent. More information.
    • Infant Pro Gap: 
      The Gap-overlap task (adapted from Elsabbagh, Fernandes et al. (2013)) is a gaze contingent paradigm that measures visual attention shifting between a central and a peripheral stimulus. This is thought to be a key sub process underlying behavioral control. More information.
    • Infant Social Gaze: 
      The social gaze task is an eye-tracking task at all waves (except pregnancy) that measures a subject’s sensitivity to another person’s gaze direction as a possible cue to predict the location of a next event. Sensitivity to gaze direction is taken as a marker of social competence. More information.

    Parent Child Interaction

    Parent child interaction (PCI) is recorded to allow researchers to code qualitative aspects of the observed interaction between parent and child based on explicitly defined behaviors. The PCI consists of age appropriate structured tasks that include a common mildly stressful event (clean-up and a teaching task), and a pleasant event (unstructured free play). The PCI tasks take about 15 minutes to complete. More Information. 
     

    Questionnaires

    Mother

    • Demographics: household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (updates since wave 20 weeks pregnant)
    • Family illness: medical & psychiatric problems of first and second degree family members
    • General health questionnaire
    • Lifestyle: nutrition, alcohol, smoking, substance (ab)use 
    • Major life events (updates since wave around 5 months old)
    • Work demographics

    Father

    • Demographics: household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (updates since wave 20 weeks pregnant)
    • Family illness: medical & psychiatric problems of first degree family members
    • General health questionnaire
    • Lifestyle: alcohol, smoking, substance (ab)use
    • Major life events (updates since wave around 5 months old)
    • Work demographics

    Parent/tutor

    Questionnaires about child

    • Ages and Stages Questionnaire - Social Emotional (ASQ-SE)
    • Antropometry and vaccinations
    • Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R SF, ECBQ, CBQ, TMCQ)
    • Medical questionnaire on child's health
    • Daily care of the child
    • Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)
    • Language development: Nederlandse - Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDI), version depends on age
    • Language situation: Spoken language in child's environment
    • Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index (NOSI)/Parental Stress Index (PSI) - subscale Sense of competence
    • Parenting: Comprehensive Early Childhood Parenting Questionnaire (CECPAQ)
    Around 3 years old

    Child

    Biological material

    • Buccal
    • Hair

    Computer task

    • Peabody: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Task (PPVT) – elaborate method description  
      To measure a child’s receptive vocabulary. Using a touch screen, a child has to select each time which out of four pictures matches best the word the child hears. This tasks lasts approximately 15 minutes (until the task becomes too difficult). More information.  

    EEG

    • Coherence:
      To understand how the connectivity among different areas of the infant brain develops. Infants passively watch 60-second video clips depicting singing women or moving toys while we measure their EEG. This task lasts 3 minutes. More information.
    • Face house:
      To understand how the infant brain differentially responds to viewing pictures of faces vs. houses. Infants passively watch pictures of (neutral) faces and pictures of typical Dutch houses while we measure their EEG. This task lasts 4 minutes. More information.
    • Face emotion:
      To understand how the infant brain differentially responds to viewing faces with different facial expressions (happy and fear).  Infants passively watch pictures of happy or fearful faces while we measure their EEG. Note that the same faces but with neutral expressions have been presented in face-house task. This task lasts 4 minutes. More information. 

    Eyetracking

    • Infant Face Popout: 
      One of the key research findings that make humans an extraordinary social species is that human faces, above anything else, grab and hold our attention. In adults the power of faces has been widely demonstrated. But already in infancy this interest in faces is apparent. More information.
    • Infant Pro Gap: 
      The Gap-overlap task (adapted from Elsabbagh, Fernandes et al. (2013)) is a gaze contingent paradigm that measures visual attention shifting between a central and a peripheral stimulus. This is thought to be a key sub process underlying behavioral control. More information.
    • Infant Social Gaze: 
      The social gaze task is an eye-tracking task at all waves (except pregnancy) that measures a subject’s sensitivity to another person’s gaze direction as a possible cue to predict the location of a next event. Sensitivity to gaze direction is taken as a marker of social competence. More information.
    • Looking While Listening:
      This eye tracking task is a simplified version of a visual world paradigm, in which every trial presents pairs of familiar images/objects of roughly the same size (example: a chair and a bath), accompanied with a pre-recorded Dutch sentence that asks the participant to look at one of these images (e.g., ‘where is a chair?’). More information.

    Parent Child Interaction

    Parent child interaction (PCI) is recorded to allow researchers to code qualitative aspects of the observed interaction between parent and child based on explicitly defined behaviors. The PCI consists of age appropriate structured tasks that include a common mildly stressful event (clean-up and a teaching task), and a pleasant event (unstructured free play). The PCI tasks take about 15 minutes to complete. More Information. 

    Video tasks

    • Delay Gratification:
      The delay of gratification paradigm tests a child’s ability to refrain from touching a gift that is placed in front of them, while the experimenter leaves the room. More information.
    • Hand Game:
      The Hand game aims to measure non-verbal inhibitory control in children aged 3 to 5. More information. 

    Questionnaires

    Mother

    • Adult Self Report (ASR)
    • Demographics: household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (or updates in wave Rondom 0)
    • Family illness: medical & psychiatric problems of first degree family members
    • Major life events in the past 12 months

    Father

    • Adult Self Report (ASR)
    • Demographics: household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (or updates in wave Rondom 0)
    • Family illness: medical & psychiatric problems of first degree family members
    • Major life events in the past 12 months

    Parent/tutor

    Questionnaires about child

    • Ages and Stages Questionnaire - Social Emotional (ASQ-SE)
    • Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R SF, ECBQ, CBQ, TMCQ)
    • Medical questionnaire on child's health
    • Daily care of the child
    • Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)
    • Language development: Nederlandse - Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDI), version depends on age
    • Language situation: Spoken language in child's environment
    • Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index (NOSI)/Parental Stress Index (PSI) - subscale Sense of competence
    • Parenting: Comprehensive Early Childhood Parenting Questionnaire (CECPAQ)
    Around 6 years old

    This part of the study is still under development

    Child

    Biological material

    • Buccal

    Computer task

    • Peabody: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Task (PPVT) – elaborate method description  
      To measure a child’s receptive vocabulary. Using a touch screen, a child has to select each time which out of four pictures matches best the word the child hears. This tasks lasts approximately 15 minutes (until the task becomes too difficult). More information.  

    EEG

    • Coherence:
      To understand how the connectivity among different areas of the infant brain develops. Infants passively watch 60-second video clips depicting singing women or moving toys while we measure their EEG. This task lasts 3 minutes. More information. 
    • Face house:
      To understand how the infant brain differentially responds to viewing pictures of faces vs. houses. Infants passively watch pictures of (neutral) faces and pictures of typical Dutch houses while we measure their EEG. This task lasts 4 minutes. More information.  
    • Face emotion:
      To understand how the infant brain differentially responds to viewing faces with different facial expressions (happy and fear).  Infants passively watch pictures of happy or fearful faces while we measure their EEG. Note that the same faces but with neutral expressions have been presented in face-house task. This task lasts 4 minutes. More information. 

    Eyetracking

    • Infant Face Popout: 
      One of the key research findings that make humans an extraordinary social species is that human faces, above anything else, grab and hold our attention. In adults the power of faces has been widely demonstrated. But already in infancy this interest in faces is apparent. More information.
    • Infant Pro Gap: 
      The Gap-overlap task (adapted from Elsabbagh, Fernandes et al. (2013)) is a gaze contingent paradigm that measures visual attention shifting between a central and a peripheral stimulus. This is thought to be a key sub process underlying behavioral control. More information.
    • Infant Social Gaze: 
      The social gaze task is an eye-tracking task at all waves (except pregnancy) that measures a subject’s sensitivity to another person’s gaze direction as a possible cue to predict the location of a next event. Sensitivity to gaze direction is taken as a marker of social competence. More information.

    Parent Child Interaction

    Parent child interaction (PCI) is recorded to allow researchers to code qualitative aspects of the observed interaction between parent and child based on explicitly defined behaviors. The PCI consists of age appropriate structured tasks that include a common mildly stressful event (clean-up and a teaching task), and a pleasant event (unstructured free play). The PCI tasks take about 15 minutes to complete. More Information. 

    YOUth Child & Adolescent

    YOUth Child & Adolescent
    Around 9 years old

    Child

    Biological material

    • Blood
    • Buccal
    • Hair
    • Saliva

    Body measures

    • Length & weight

    Computer tasks

    • Peabody:
      To measure a child’s receptive vocabulary. A child selects which out of four pictures matches best the word the child hears. This task lasts approximately 15 minutes (until the task becomes too difficult). More information.
    • Cyberball: 
      This paradigm measures constructs of prosocial behavior related to empathy as it investigates whether a child actively compensates for other children’s behavior who are suddenly excluding a third child in a ball-throwing game. More Information. 
    • Penn:
      The Penn CNB is a computerized neurocognitive test battery developed at the University of Pennsylvania. We included three subtasks of this battery that capture two specific cognitive domains: verbal memory (short term and delayed verbal memory tasks) and emotion recognition. More information. 
    • Trust game: 
      This paradigm tests participants’ willingness to trust others and reciprocate other’s trusts in a social context, both of which serve as proxies for prosocial behavior. More information. 
    • Delay discounting task 
      The delay discounting task is typically considered an index of impulsive behavior. Children are asked to make a choice between an immediate small reward and a delayed larger reward. More Information

    Eyetracking

    • Child Gap antisaccade & Child Gap prosaccade: 
      The Gap-overlap task (adapted from Elsabbagh, Fernandes et al. (2013) is a gaze contingent paradigm that measures visual attention shifting between a central and a peripheral stimulus. This is thought to be a key sub process underlying behavioral control. More information.
    • Child Social Gaze:
      The social gaze task is an eye-tracking task at all waves (except pregnancy) that measures a subject’s sensitivity to another person’s gaze direction as a possible cue to predict the location of a next event. Sensitivity to gaze direction is taken as a marker of social competence. More information.

    Intelligence quotient

    • WISC-III:
      Intelligence is estimated with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children in the fifth (WISC-V Dutch version, Wechsler, 2018).  We assess the following seven subtests: vocabulary, block design, similarities, coding, matrix reasoning, figure weights, and digit span. Because the Dutch WISC-V was released after the start of the study, we started with the third edition (WISC-III Dutch version, Wechsler, 2003) and then switched to the WISC-V just after its release in 2018. We assessed six subtests of the WISC-III: vocabulary, block design, smiliraties, coding, arithmetic, and digit span.  More information.

    Mock scanner

    • Inhibition experiment

    MRI

    • Anatomy experiment:
      A structural MRI scan is acquired to assess morphology of the brain. From these scans, volumetric measurements, cortical thickness, surface area and gyrification can be inferred. More information.
    • Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI):
      High resolution multi-shell diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans are acquired that allow us to investigate the microstructure of brain tissue. More information. 
    • Resting state functional MRI scan:
      We record brain activity while the subject is asked to lay still in the scanner. Using this recording, we aim to provide measures of intrinsic brain connectivity patterns. More Information
    • Inhibition task for functional MRI:
      The stop-signal anticipation task for functional MRI aims to measure performance and brain activation during actual stopping as well as during the anticipation of stopping. More Information
    • Face/house task for functional MRI:
      The face/house task for functional MRI is geared towards activating face processing areas in the brain. Children are presented with pictures of faces and of houses, in a semi-random order. To ensure children are paying attention, they are instructed to press a button when a red dot appears. More information

    Parent Child Interaction

    Parent child interaction (PCI) is recorded to allow researchers to code qualitative aspects of the observed interaction between parent and child based on explicitly defined behaviors. The PCI consists of age appropriate structured tasks that include a common mildly stressful event (discussing a difficult topic), and a pleasant event (discussing a pleasant topic). The PCI tasks take about 15 minutes to complete. More information. 

    Questionnaires

    • Child's sense of compentence: Competentie belevingsschaal - adolescent (CBSA)
    • Friendship: Network Relationships Inventory - Short Form (NRI-SF)
    • Impulsivity and risk behavior: Behavioral inhibition scale (BIS) and risk behavior (substance (ab)use)
    • Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)
    • Media use: Use of (computer) games and social media
    • Movies and series: Fictievragenlijst deel 2 kijkgedrag (FVL): Fiction questionnaire - part 2 movies and series
    • Parental Behavior: Child's report of parental behavior inventory (CRPBI)
    • Parental control scale (PCS)
    • Personality of the child: Early adolescent temperament questionnaire - revised (EATQ-R)
    • Pubertal development scale (PDS)
    • Reading behavior: Fictievragenlijst deel 1 leesgedrag (FVL): Fiction questionnaire - part 1 reading behavior
    • Sleep behavior: Sleep self report (SSR)

    Mother

    Biological material

    • Blood
    • Buccal

    Questionnaires

    • Adult Self Report (ASR)
    • Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)
    • Coping with situations: Utrechtse Coping Lijst (UCL)
    • Demographics: Household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (or updates in wave Rondom 0)
    • Family illness - medical: Medical problems of first degree family members
    • Family illness - psychiatric: Psychiatric problems of first degree family members
    • General health questionnaire
    • Lifestyle: Substance (ab)use
    • Lifestyle during pregnancy: Vitamins, medication, exposure during pregnancy
    • List of longterm stressful life events selected by GenerationR
    • Major life events in the past 12 months
    • Periconceptual health
    • Personality questionnaire (NEO-FFI-3)
    • Portrait values questionnaire - revised (PVQ-RR)
    • Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)

    Father

    Biological material

    • Blood
    • Buccal

    Questionnaires

    • Adult Self Report (ASR)
    • Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)
    • Coping with situations: Utrechtse Coping Lijst (UCL)
    • Demographics: Household, background, language, education, family relations, economic situation, religion (or updates in wave Rondom 0)
    • Family illness - medical: Medical problems of first degree family members
    • Family illness - psychiatric: Psychiatric problems of first degree family members
    • General health questionnaire
    • Lifestyle: Substance (ab)use
    • Lifestyle prior to pregnancy: Vitamins, medication, exposure during pregnancy
    • List of longterm stressful life events selected by GenerationR
    • Major life events in the past 12 months
    • Personality questionnaire (NEO-FFI-3)
    • Portrait values questionnaire - revised (PVQ-RR)
    • Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)

    Parent/tutor about child

    • ADHD symptoms (SWAN rating scale) and Gender Identity (GI)
    • Bullying behavior of/towards the child
    • Characteristics of the child: Quick Big Five (QBF)
    • Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Questionnaire about problem behavior and skills of the child
    • Medical questionnaire on child's health
    • Language situation and pragmatics: Spoken language in child's environment and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals 4th Edition - subscale Pragmatics (CELF-4 pragmatics)
    • Parental Stress Index - Acceptance: Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index (NOSI)/Parental Stress Index (PSI) - subscale Acceptance
    • Parental Stress Index - Sense of Competence: Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index (NOSI)/Parental Stress Index (PSI) - subscale Sense of competence
    • Parenting behavior: Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), Nijmeegse Opvoedvragenlijst (NOV), Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI)
    • Personality of the child: Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire - Revised - parent report (EATQ-R parent report)
    • Relationship with the child: Network Relationships Inventory - Short Form - Parent report (NRI-SF parent report)
    • Strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ)
    Around 12 years old

    Child

    Biological material

    • Blood
    • Buccal
    • Hair
    • Saliva

    Computer tasks

    • Cyberball: 
      This paradigm measures constructs of prosocial behavior related to empathy as it investigates whether a child actively compensates for other children’s behavior who are suddenly excluding a third child in a ball-throwing game. More Information. 
    • Peabody: 
      To measure a child’s receptive vocabulary. A child selects which out of four pictures matches best the word the child hears. This tasks lasts approximately 15 minutes (until the task makes becomes too difficult). More information.
    • Penn:
      The Penn CNB is a computerized neurocognitive test battery developed at the University of Pennsylvania. We included three subtasks of this battery that capture two specific cognitive domains: verbal memory (short term and delayed verbal memory tasks) and emotion recognition. More information. 
    • Trust game: 
      This paradigm tests participants’ willingness to trust others and reciprocate other’s trusts in a social context, both of which serve as proxies for prosocial behavior. More information. 
    • Delay discounting task 
      The delay discounting task is typically considered an index of impulsive behavior. Children are asked to make a choice between an immediate small reward and a delayed larger reward. More Information

    Eyetracking

    • Child Gap antisaccade: 
      The Gap-overlap task (adapted from Elsabbagh, Fernandes et al. (2013) is a gaze contingent paradigm that measures visual attention shifting between a central and a peripheral stimulus. This is thought to be a key sub process underlying behavioral control. More information.
    • Child Gap prosaccade: 
      The Gap-overlap task (adapted from Elsabbagh, Fernandes et al. (2013) is a gaze contingent paradigm that measures visual attention shifting between a central and a peripheral stimulus. This is thought to be a key sub process underlying behavioral control. More information.
    • Child Social Gaze:
      The social gaze task is an eye-tracking task at all waves (except pregnancy) that measures a subject’s sensitivity to another person’s gaze direction as a possible cue to predict the location of a next event. Sensitivity to gaze direction is taken as a marker of social competence. More information.

    Intelligence quotient

    • WISC-III:
      Intelligence is estimated with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children in the third (WISC-III Dutch version, Wechsler, 2003) and fifth edition (WISC-V Dutch version, Wechsler, 2018). Because the Dutch WISC-V was released after the start of the study, we started with the third edition and then switched to the WISC-V just after its release in 2018. We assessed six subtests of the WISC-III: arithmetic, block design, coding, digit span, similarities and vocabulary. Currently, we assess the following WISC-V subtests: block design, coding, digit span, figure weights, matrix reasoning, similarities and vocabulary. More information.

    Mock scanner

    • Inhibition experiment

    MRI

    • Anatomy experiment
      A structural MRI scan is acquired to assess morphology of the brain. From these scans, volumetric measurements, cortical thickness, surface area and gyrification can be inferred. More information.
    • Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI):
      High resolution multi-shell diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans are acquired that allow us to investigate the microstructure of brain tissue. More information.  
    • Face/house task for functional MRI 
      The face/house task for functional MRI is geared towards activating face processing areas in the brain. Children are presented with pictures of faces and of houses, in a semi-random order. To ensure children are paying attention, they are instructed to press a button when a red dot appears. More information. 
    • Inihibition task for functional MRI
      The stop-signal anticipation task for functional MRI aims to measure performance and brain activation during actual stopping as well as during the anticipation of stopping. More Information
    • Resting state functional MRI scan 
      We record brain activity while the subject is asked to lay still in the scanner. Using this recording, we aim to provide measures of intrinsic brain connectivity patterns. More Information. 

    Parent Child Interaction

    Parent child interaction (PCI) is recorded to allow researchers to code qualitative aspects of the observed interaction between parent and child based on explicitly defined behaviors. The PCI consists of age appropriate structured tasks that include a common mildly stressful event (discussing a difficult topic), and a pleasant event (discussing a pleasant topic). The PCI tasks take about 15 minutes to complete. More information. 

    Around 15 years old

    Child

    Biological material

    • Blood
    • Buccal
    • Hair
    • Saliva

    Computer tasks

    • Cyberball: 
      This paradigm measures constructs of prosocial behavior related to empathy as it investigates whether a child actively compensates for other children’s behavior who are suddenly excluding a third child in a ball-throwing game. More Information. 
    • Peabody: 
      To measure a child’s receptive vocabulary. A child selects which out of four pictures matches best the word the child hears. This tasks lasts approximately 15 minutes (until the task makes becomes too difficult). More information.
    • Penn:
      The Penn CNB is a computerized neurocognitive test battery developed at the University of Pennsylvania. We included three subtasks of this battery that capture two specific cognitive domains: verbal memory (short term and delayed verbal memory tasks) and emotion recognition. More information. 
    • Trust game: 
      This paradigm tests participants’ willingness to trust others and reciprocate other’s trusts in a social context, both of which serve as proxies for prosocial behavior. More information. 
    • Delay discounting task 
      The delay discounting task is typically considered an index of impulsive behavior. Children are asked to make a choice between an immediate small reward and a delayed larger reward. More Information

    Eyetracking

    • Child Gap antisaccade: 
      The Gap-overlap task (adapted from Elsabbagh, Fernandes et al. (2013) is a gaze contingent paradigm that measures visual attention shifting between a central and a peripheral stimulus. This is thought to be a key sub process underlying behavioral control. More information.
    • Child Gap prosaccade: 
      The Gap-overlap task (adapted from Elsabbagh, Fernandes et al. (2013) is a gaze contingent paradigm that measures visual attention shifting between a central and a peripheral stimulus. This is thought to be a key sub process underlying behavioral control. More information. 
    • Child Social Gaze:
      The social gaze task is an eye-tracking task at all waves (except pregnancy) that measures a subject’s sensitivity to another person’s gaze direction as a possible cue to predict the location of a next event. Sensitivity to gaze direction is taken as a marker of social competence. More information.

    Intelligence quotient

    • WISC-III:
      Intelligence is estimated with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children in the third (WISC-III Dutch version, Wechsler, 2003) and fifth edition (WISC-V Dutch version, Wechsler, 2018). Because the Dutch WISC-V was released after the start of the study, we started with the third edition and then switched to the WISC-V just after its release in 2018. We assessed six subtests of the WISC-III: arithmetic, block design, coding, digit span, similarities and vocabulary. Currently, we assess the following WISC-V subtests: block design, coding, digit span, figure weights, matrix reasoning, similarities and vocabulary. More information.

    Mock scanner

    • Inhibition experiment

    MRI

    • Anatomy experiment:
      A structural MRI scan is acquired to assess morphology of the brain. From these scans, volumetric measurements, cortical thickness, surface area and gyrification can be inferred. More information.
    • Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI):
      High resolution multi-shell diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans are acquired that allow us to investigate the microstructure of brain tissue. More information.  
    • Face/house task for functional MRI 
      The face/house task for functional MRI is geared towards activating face processing areas in the brain. Children are presented with pictures of faces and of houses, in a semi-random order. To ensure children are paying attention, they are instructed to press a button when a red dot appears. More information. 
    • Inihibition task for functional MRI
      The stop-signal anticipation task for functional MRI aims to measure performance and brain activation during actual stopping as well as during the anticipation of stopping. More Information
    • Resting state functional MRI scan 
      We record brain activity while the subject is asked to lay still in the scanner. Using this recording, we aim to provide measures of intrinsic brain connectivity patterns. More Information. 

    Parent Child Interaction

    Parent child interaction (PCI) is recorded to allow researchers to code qualitative aspects of the observed interaction between parent and child based on explicitly defined behaviors. The PCI consists of age appropriate structured tasks that include a common mildly stressful event (discussing a difficult topic), and a pleasant event (discussing a pleasant topic). The PCI tasks take about 15 minutes to complete. More information.