"The fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989 is mostly identified as the end of the Cold War", Crump states. In the period that followed, the American goverment put its mark on the future of Europe and the role that Russia would play in it.
New Cold War?
"The interests of NATO, the European Union and Russia are hard to reconcile, especially when the Russia feels completely eclipsed by the two –originally western European– international organisations. However, it would be too simplistic to mark the resulting situation as a 'new Cold War'. Partially because the Cold War was much more complex; the symmetry between the two great powers that was central in the Cold War is now conspicuous by its absence."