Profile

Ik ben in december 2003 gepromoveerd aan de UvA op het proefschrift Sacred Time, Sacred Space. History and Identity at the monastery of Fulda (744-856). In september 2005 begon ik mijn Veni-project In the wake of Boniface. Monasteries and religious transformations, c. 750 – c. 900 dat ik begin 2010 succesvol heb afgerond. In mijn eerdere onderzoek heb ik me vooral gericht op groeps- en identiteitsvorming, het kloosterleven en de relatie met het hof, religieuze cultuur en de verbreiding van het christendom, en heb de bestudering van teksten gecombineerd met de analyse van archeologische bronnen, architectuur, liturgie en religieuze artefacten. Mijn nieuwe onderzoeksproject, Mind over matter. Debates about the sanctity of religious objects, ca 400-1200, betreft de rol van materie binnen de christelijke devotie in het middeleeuwse westen, in het bijzonder de rol van relieken. Het richt zich op debatten tussen geleerden over de spanningen tussen het spirituele en het materiële en de manieren waarop de gelovigen verlossing konden vinden, maar wil ook de praktijk van reliekverering in het onderzoek betrekken en de invloed van dergelijke discussies op de heiligenculten zelf bestuderen.

Strategic themes / Focus areas
Involved in the following study programme(s)
Scientific expertise
christianisation
relics
religious culture
monastic communities

Now Available The Making of the Monastic Community of Fulda, c.744 – c.900, Janneke Raaijmakers. For more information see www.cambridge.org/9781107002814
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All publications
  2016 - Scholarly publications
Raaijmakers, J.E. (24.11.2016). I, Claudius. Self-styling in early medieval debate. Early Medieval Europe, 25 (1), (pp. 70-84) (15 p.).
van Renswoude, Irene, Meens, Rob, van Espelo, Dorine, Raaijmakers, Janneke, van Rhijn, Carine & van den Hoven van Genderen, Bram (2016). Religious Franks. Religion and Power in the Frankish Kingdoms - Studies in Honour of Mayke de Jong. Manchester University Press.
van Rhijn, A.C., Meens, R.M.J., Raaijmakers, J.E., van den Hoven Van Genderen, A.J., van Renswoude, Irene & van Espelo, D.B. (2016). Religious Franks. Religion and power in the Frankish kingdoms: studies in honour of Mayke de Jong. (584 p.). Manchester: Manchester University Press.
van Renswoude, Irene & Raaijmakers, Janneke (2016). The ruler as referee in theological debates - Reccared and Charlemagne. In Rob Meens, Dorine van Espelo, Carine van Rhijn, Bram van den Hoven van Genderen, Janneke Raaijmakers & Irene van Renswoude (Eds.), Religious Franks. Religion and Power in the Frankish Kingdoms - Studies in Honour of Mayke de Jong (pp. 50-70) (21 p.). Manchester University Press.
Raaijmakers, J.E. & van Renswoude, Irene (2016). The ruler as referee in theological debates - Reccared and Charlemagne. In Rob Meens, Irene van Renswoude, Dorine van Espelo, Carine van Rhijn, Bram van den Hoven van Genderen & Janneke Raaijmakers (Eds.), Religious Franks - Religion and power in the Frankish Kingdoms: Studies in honour of Mayke de Jong (pp. 50-70) (21 p.). Manchester University Press.
  2015 - Professional publications
Raaijmakers, J.E. (2015). Een tijd van bijgeloof en superstitie? Reliekverering en geloof in de late Oudheid en vroege Middeleeuwen. In R.M.J. Meens & C.A. van Rhijn (Eds.), Cultuurgeschiedenis van de Middeleeuwen (pp. 92-108). Open Universiteit.
  2015 - Other output
J.E. Raaijmakers (30.01.2015). ‘Debating relic cults in Late Antiquity: Vigilantius of Calagurris, Victricius of Rouen and Paulinus of Nola’. Workshop religion and material culture.
Raaijmakers, J.E. (2015). Debating relics, c. 350-c.1150.
J.E. Raaijmakers (08.07.2015). paper 'In the Margin: Reflections on the Cult of Relics in the Early Middle Ages'. International Medieval Congress 2015.
J.E. Raaijmakers (22.09.2015). Workshop Questions about researching relics. Aim of the workshop was to offer a platform to discuss research questions and problems of methodology and to try out new ideas and approaches. Central issues that were discussed included the definition of 'relic' (what do we mean by 'relic'), the relation between relics and writing, and the question of authenticity. How did/do people create trustworthiness?. 'Questions about (researching) relics'.
  2014 - Scholarly publications
Raaijmakers, J.E. (2014). Bookreview: Debating the Saints’ Cults in the Age of Gregory the Great. Author: Matthew Dal Santo. Early Medieval Europe, 22 (3), (pp. 370-374) (5 p.).
  2014 - Other output
J.E. Raaijmakers (31.01.2014). Paper 'Inscribing matter in the earlier Middle Ages'. Motifs et monuments funéraires .
J.E. Raaijmakers (07.07.2014). Strand of three sessions Rules of Debate: The Sequel This strand of three sessions is a follow-up of last year's strand and deals with debates, discussions, and religious controversies in Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages. The speakers will investigate which formal and informal guidelines regulated these debates and analyse the methods of discussion that were employed. What were the social and rhetorical norms for Christians arguing amongst themselves? What was, moreover, the relation between fictional constructions or literary representations and the 'actual' practice of debating? This year, we will address a question that was raised during last year's strand concerning the typology of debate: what do we mean when we speak of 'debates' and what are the terms used in the texts and periods that we are studying?. International Medieval Congress 2014.
  2013 - Other output
J.E. Raaijmakers (26.09.2013). 'Between Image and Text: The Early Medieval 'Iconology' of Graphic Representational Signs.
J.E. Raaijmakers (18.09.2013). contribution 'material Christianity'. Symposium Past Trajectories – New directions: the study of religion today .
J.E. Raaijmakers (03.07.2013). paper Arguing Impudently: Claudius of Turin (d. 827) versus Dungal of Pavia (d. 828). International Medieval Congress 2013.
J.E. Raaijmakers (01.01.2013). strand The Rules of Debate in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages organised together with Irene van Renswoude. International Medieval Congress 2013.
J.E. Raaijmakers (04.11.2013). The Future of Religious Heritage.
J.E. Raaijmakers (01.05.2013). Together with Dorine van Espelo, Bram van den Hoven van Genderen, Rob Meens, Irene van Renswoude en Carine van Rhijn I have edited the book Religious Franks. Religion and power in the Frankish Kingdoms: Studies in honour of Mayke de Jong. Manchester University Press.
  2012 - Scholarly publications
Teeuwen, M.J., van Renswoude, I. & Raaijmakers, Janneke (2012). Karolingische Klöster. Wissenstransfer und kulturelle Innovation International Conference in the Lorsch Museum Centre Lorsch, 31 October-2 November, 2012. Arbeitsgemeinschaft historischer Forschungseinrichtungen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V. , Reporting year: 2012.
Raaijmakers, J.E. (2012). The Making of the Monastic Community of Fulda, c. 744- c. 900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2012 - Other output
J.E. Raaijmakers (09.07.2012). Ascetics and relics in late Roman Gaul. International Medieval Conference.
J.E. Raaijmakers (22.05.2012). lecture Mind and Matter. Debates about relic veneration in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages . Masterclass Relics and remains. Relic cults in different religious traditions .
J.E. Raaijmakers (09.07.2012). paper Ascetics and Relics in Late Roman Gaul. International Medieval Congress.
  2011 - Scholarly publications
Raaijmakers, J.E. (2011). Fulda, eine heilige Stadt. Hrabanus Maurus und die Reliquientranslationen (835- 838). In M.-A. Aris (Eds.), Kirche und Schrift – Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda (pp. 219-238) (20 p.). Fulda: Fuldaer Hochschulschriften.
  2011 - Other output
J.E. Raaijmakers (09.02.2011). Contribution to discussion programme Rijksmuseum on relics by giving lecture and participating in round table discussion. Glorie en verderf, geest en vlees. Relieken en het vroegmiddeleeuws christendom.
J.E. Raaijmakers (01.09.2011). Invited lunch lecture Utrecht Centre for Medieval Studies.
J.E. Raaijmakers (04.10.2011). lecture about the practice of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages, with a focus on the themes spiritual pilgrimage and penitence. lecture ‘Te voet naar Jacobus. Pelgrimage in de Middeleeuwen’.
J.E. Raaijmakers (13.07.2011). paper 'The Annales Necrologici of Fulda, 9th Century'. International Medieval congress 11-14 July 2011.
  2010 - Scholarly publications
Raaijmakers, J.E. (2010). Word, image and relics. Hrabanus Maurus and the cult of saints (820s-840s). In Ph. Depreux, S. Lebecq, M. J.-L. Perrin & O. Szerwiniak (Eds.), Hraban Maur et son temps (pp. 385-401) (17 p.). Turnhout: Brepols.
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Project:
Mind over matter. Debates about relics as sacred objects, c. 350-c. 1150
01.06.2014 to 31.05.2018
General project description 

With the cult of relics, Christians explored the use of the material world to reach their god and achieve salvation. Contrary to what is often maintained, however, the role of relics in Christian religious life was not self-evident and unchallenged. From their earliest history on, the boundaries of interaction between the material and the divine provoked debate and dissent. Could the remains of saints embody the divine or were they references to the divine? Should they be venerated or was this idolatry?


This project is the first attempt to systematically map out these discussions and disagreements in the West from Late Antiquity until c. 1150. It investigates the learned debates on the role of matter in Christian devotion (project 1) and analyses their relation to the practices of the saints’ cults themselves (projects 2 and 3). Instead of focusing solely on normative texts and text editions, as is usually done, this project foregrounds neglected material: inscriptions engraved at cult sites and marginal annotations in manuscripts that expressed new ideas and controversial thoughts. Additionally, the project explores the material objects themselves: relics, the reliquaries in which they were kept and the physical setting of the cult.


Within the broader context of recent interest in the relationship of materiality to religion, this project advances scholarship by increasing our understanding of the role matter played in Christian devotion in the medieval West, the discussions it raised and their historical developments. By combining the study of material culture and traditional historical and philological methods, this project will bring into focus dissent and diversity rather than orthodoxy and unity.

Role Researcher Funding
NWO grant
Project members UU
Project:
Mind over matter. Debates about relics as sacred objects, c. 350-c. 1150
26.11.2013 to 01.12.2018
General project description 

With the cult of relics, Christians explored the use of the material world to reach their god and achieve salvation. Contrary to what is often maintained, however, the role of relics in Christian religious life was not self-evident and unchallenged. From their earliest history on, the boundaries of interaction between the material and the divine provoked debate and dissent. Could the remains of saints embody the divine or were they references to the divine? Should they be venerated or was this idolatry?


This project is the first attempt to systematically map out these discussions and disagreements in the West from Late Antiquity until c. 1150. It investigates the learned debates on the role of matter in Christian devotion (project 1) and analyses their relation to the practices of the saints’ cults themselves (projects 2 and 3). Instead of focusing solely on normative texts and text editions, as is usually done, this project foregrounds neglected material: inscriptions engraved at cult sites and marginal annotations in manuscripts that expressed new ideas and controversial thoughts. Additionally, the project explores the material objects themselves: relics, the reliquaries in which they were kept and the physical setting of the cult.


Within the broader context of recent interest in the relationship of materiality to religion, this project advances scholarship by increasing our understanding of the role matter played in Christian devotion in the medieval West, the discussions it raised and their historical developments. By combining the study of material culture and traditional historical and philological methods, this project will bring into focus dissent and diversity rather than orthodoxy and unity.


More information


 
Role Researcher
Individual project description

This project focuses on the intellectual reflections on the role of relics in Christian devotion, starting with the polemics incited by Vigilantius, Claudius of Turin and Guibert of Nogent. I will also look for other, so far unacknowledged, examples of critique and reflection on relic piety.


The project deals with the texts (treatises, poetry, vitae) produced and used during such debates, in relation to the annotations in the margins of the manuscripts that transmit these texts, which may both reflect on and contradict the main text. The project wants to include this rich material, still hidden in the manuscripts, unedited and unexplored, and investigate it in comparison with published theological treatises. Involving this new medium, I shall be able to create a new view on saints’ cults and their position in early medieval Christianity. A initial survey has revealed that the early medieval manuscripts containing Jerome’s Contra Vigilantium, Dungal’s Responsa contra Claudium and Victricius’ De laude sanctorum include marginalia, and I expect to discover many more.


In addition to the medieval debates, the project will analyse current discussions on ‘holy matter’, starting with the discipline of material culture studies, to explore how these modern studies may help to develop a new conceptual framework helpful for medieval studies.

Funding
NWO grant
Project members UU

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Currently dr. Janneke Raaijmakers teaches the following course(s):
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Full name
dr. J.E. Raaijmakers Contact details
Drift 10

Drift 10
Room 0.06
3512 BS  UTRECHT
The Netherlands


Drift 6

Drift 6
Room 0.06
3512 BS  UTRECHT
The Netherlands


Phone number (direct) +31 30 253 2608
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Last updated 08.10.2015