dr. H. (Heike) Schmitt
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Heike Schmitt is investigating the role of the environment for the transmission of resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. Here, she is interested in

  • the role of the aquatic environment, including human exposure to ESBL producing E. coli in surface water
  • the role of the farm environment, including human exposure through airborne bacteria
  • the role of manure fertilization for the occurrence of resistant bacteria in soils

She is also working on

  • Microbial diversity of agricultural systems, and its variability
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Curriculum vitae

Professional experience

2016-today    RIVM, Centre for Centre for Infectious Disease Control

2011-today   UD (assistant professor) position

2005-2011    Junior UD (assistant professor) position

2001-2005    PhD position at IRAS, in collaboration with the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, RIVM

Honors and awards

  • NWO VENI scholarship “Microbial functioning of soil – does diversity matter?”
  • Young scientist award (Nachwuchs-Förderpreis) of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry SETAC -  German Language Branch for the best PhD thesis in the German language area, 2005
  • Grant of the “Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes“


  • University teaching qualification (BKO)
  • European registered toxicologist (Eurotox)
  • Recognized Toxicologist (Netherlands Society of Toxicology)
  • Specialist chemist in toxicology, University of Leipzig, Germany.
  • Chemistry diploma, University of Bremen


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All publications
  Articles - 2017
Dohmen, W, VAN Gompel, L, Schmitt, H, Liakopoulos, A, Heres, L, Urlings, B A, Mevius, D, Bonten, M J M & Heederik, D J J (2017). ESBL carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers is associated with occupational exposure. Epidemiology and Infection, (pp. 1-8) (8 p.).
  Articles - 2015
Pacholewicz, E., Liakopoulos, Apostolos, Swart, Arno, Gortemaker, B.G.M., Dierikx, Cindy, Havelaar, A.H. & Schmitt, H. (2015). Reduction of extended-spectrum- beta -lactamase-and AmpC-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli through processing in two broiler chicken slaughterhouses. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 215.
Pacholewicz, Ewa, Liakopoulos, Apostolos, Swart, Arno, Gortemaker, Betty, Dierikx, Cindy, Havelaar, Arie & Schmitt, Heike (18.08.2015). Reduction of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase- and AmpC-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli through processing in two broiler chicken slaughterhouses. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 215, (pp. 57-63) (7 p.).
Kyselková, Martina, Jirout, Jiří, Vrchotová, Naděžda, Schmitt, Heike & Elhottová, Dana (2015). Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm. Frontiers in Microbiology, 6 (14 p.).
Kyselkova, Martina, Kotrbova, Lucie, Bhumibhamon, Gamonsiri, Chronakova, Alica, Jirout, Jiri, Vrchotova, Nadezda, Schmitt, Heike & Elhottova, Dana (2015). Tetracycline resistance genes persist in soil amended with cattle feces independently from chlortetracycline selection pressure. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 81, (pp. 259-265) (7 p.).
  Articles - 2014
Semenov, Alexander V., Pereira E Silva, Michele C., Salles, Joana Falcão, Schmitt, Heike & Van Elsas, Jan Dirk (2014). Quantitative assessment of soil functioning across a representative range of Dutch soils. Ecological Indicators, 39, (pp. 88-93) (6 p.).
  Articles - 2013
Kyselková, M., Jirout, J., Chroňáková, A., Vrchotová, N., Bradley, R., Schmitt, H. & Elhottová, D. (2013). Cow excrements enhance the occurrence of tetracycline resistance genes in soil regardless of their oxytetracycline content. Chemosphere, 93 (10), (pp. 2413-2418) (6 p.).
Pereira e Silva, M.C., Semenov, A.V., Schmitt, H., van Elsas, J.D. & Salles, J.F. (2013). Microbe-mediated processes as indicators to establish the normal operating range of soil functioning. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 57, (pp. 995-1002) (8 p.).
Keuskamp, J.A., Schmitt, H., Laanbroek, H.J., Verhoeven, J.T.A. & Hefting, M.M. (2013). Nutrient amendment does not increase mineralisation of sequestered carbon during incubation of a nitrogen limited mnagrove soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry
  Articles - 2012
Semenov, A.V., Pereira e Silva, M.C., Szturc, A.E., Schmitt, H., Salles, J.F. & van Elsas, J.D. (2012). Impact of incorporated fresh C-13 potato tissues on the bacterial and fungal community composition of soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 49, (pp. 88-95) (8 p.).
Keuskamp, J.A., Schmitt, H., Laanbroek, H.J., Verhoeven, J.T.A. & Hefting, M.M. (2012). Nutrient amendment does not increase mineralisation of sequestered carbon during incubation of a nitrogen limited mangrove soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 57, (pp. 822-829) (8 p.).
  Articles - 2011
Heuer, H., Schmitt, H. & Smalla, K. (2011). Antibiotic resistance gene spread due to manure application on agricultural fields. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 14 (3), (pp. 236-243) (8 p.).
Singer, A.C., Colizza, V., Schmitt, H., Andrews, J., Balcan, D., Huang, W.H., Keller, V.D.J., Vespignani, A. & Williams, R.J. (2011). Assessing the ecotoxicologic hazards of a pandemic influenza medical response. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119 (8), (pp. 1084-1090) (7 p.).
  Articles - 2010
Schmitt, H., Boucard, T., Garric, J., Jensen, J., Parrott, J., Pery, A., Rombke, J., Straub, J.O., Hutchinson, T.H., Sanchez-Arguello, P., Wennmalm, A. & Duis, K. (2010). Recommendations on the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: Effect characterization. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 6 (Suppl 1), (pp. 588-602) (5 p.).
  Articles - 2009
Schauss, K., Focks, A., Heuer, H., Kotzerke, A., Schmitt, H., Thiele-Bruhn, S., Smalla, K., Wilke, B.M. & Matthies, M. (2009). Analysis, fate and effects of the antibiotic sulfadiazine in soil. TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 28 (5), (pp. 612-618) (7 p.).
Jonker, M.T.O., Suijkerbuijk, M.P., Schmitt, H. & Sinnige, T.L. (2009). Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments. Environmental Science & Technology, 43 (15), (pp. 5959-5966) (8 p.).
Demoling, L.A., Baath, E., Greve, G.D., Wouterse, M. & Schmitt, H. (2009). Effects of sulfamethoxazole on soil microbial communities after adding substrate. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41 (4), (pp. 840-848) (9 p.).
  Articles - 2008
van Heijnsbergen, E. & Schmitt, H. (2008). Risico's van cytostatica in het aquatisch milieu. H2O, 41, (pp. 47-49) (2 p.).
  Articles - 2006
Schmitt, H., Martinali, B., Stoob, K., Hamscher, G., van Beelen, P., Smit, E., van Leeuwen, C.J. & Seinen, W. (2006). Antibiotics as environmental pollutants: effects on soil microorganisms. Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, 18 (2), (pp. 110-118) (9 p.).
Schmitt, H., Martinali, B., van Beelen, P. & Seinen, W. (2006). On the limits of toxicant-induced tolerance testing: cotolerance and response variation of antibiotic effects. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25 (7), (pp. 1961-1968) (8 p.).
Schmitt, H., Stoob, K., Hamscher, G., Smit, E. & Seinen, W. (2006). Tetracyclines and tetracycline resistance in agricultural soils: microcosm and field studies. Microbial Ecology, 51 (3), (pp. 267-76) (10 p.).
  Articles - 2005
Altenburger, R., Schmitt, H. & Schuurmann, G. (2005). Algal Toxicity of nitrobenzenes: combined effect analysis as a pharmacological probe for similar modes of interaction. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24 (2), (pp. 324-333) (10 p.).
Schmitt, H., Haapakangas, H. & van Beelen, P. (2005). Effects of antibiotics on soil microorganisms: time and nutrients influence pollution-induced community tolerance. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37, (pp. 1882-1892) (11 p.).
Knacker, T., Duis, K., Ternes, T., Fenner, K., Escher, B.I., Schmitt, H., Rombke, J., Garric, J., Hutchinson, T. & Boxall, A.B.A. (2005). The EU-project erapharm Incentives for the further development of guidance documents?. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 12 (2), (pp. 62-65) (4 p.).
  Articles - 2004
Schmitt, H., van Beelen, J., Tolls, J. & van Leeuwen, C.L. (2004). Pollution-induced community tolerance of soil microbial communities caused by the antibiotic sulfachloropyridazine. Environmental Science & Technology, 38, (pp. 1148-1153) (6 p.).
  Book parts / chapters - 2017
Dohmen, Wietske, Schmitt, Heike, Bonten, Marc & Heederik, Dick (01.05.2017). Air exposure as a possible route for ESBL in pig farmers. Environmental Research (pp. 359-364) (6 p.). Academic Press.
  Book parts / chapters - 2012
Singer, A.C. & Schmitt, H. (2012). Antibiotic Use during an Influenza Pandemic: Downstream Ecological Effects and Antibiotic Resistance. In P.L. Keen & M.H.M.M. Montforts (Eds.), Antibiotic resistance in the environment (pp. 503-538) (632 p.). Wiley.
  Book parts / chapters - 2008
Schmitt, H. & Römbke, J. (2008). The ecotoxicological effects of pharmaceuticals (antibiotics and antiparasiticides) in the terrestrial environment – a review. In K. Kümmerer (Eds.), Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (522 p.). Heidelberg: Springer.
  Book parts / chapters - 2007
Schmitt, H. (2007). Antibiotika als Umweltkontaminanten - Effekte auf Mikroorganismen. In Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt (Eds.), Tierarzneimittel in der Umwelt (pp. 177-186) (10 p.). München: Oldenbourg Industrieverlag.
  Reports - 2012
Römbke, J., Jänsch, S., Roß-Nickoll, M., Toschki, A., Höfer, H., Horak, F., Russell, D., Burkhardt, U. & Schmitt, H. (2012). Erfassung und Analyse des Bodenzustands im Hinblick auf die Umsetzung und Weiterentwicklung der Nationalen Biodiversitätsstrategie. (389 p.). Dessau-Roßlau: Umweltbundesamt, Deutschland.
  Awards - 0
H. Schmitt () Microbial functioning of soil - Does diversity matter?
  Lectures - 2011
H. Schmitt (27.04.2011) Antibiotic resistance in the environment: manure and waste water as sources for resistance genes in soil and water,
  Lectures - 2009
H. Schmitt (30.03.2009) Use of antibiotics in agriculture-Consequences for the environment
  Lectures - 2006
H. Schmitt (23.10.2006) Antibiotics as environmental contaminants
H. Schmitt (04.09.2006) Nachwuchspreisträgerpräsentation: The effects of veterinary antibiotics on soil microbial communities
  Lectures - 0
H. Schmitt () antibiotica resistente bacterien in het waterige milieu
H. Schmitt () Mangrove soil sir: effects of nutrient loading and tannins on soil mineralisation
  Contribution to the work of national or international committees and working groups - 0
H. Schmitt () Bestuurslid NVT, sectie Milieutoxicologie
  Doctoral thesis 1 (Research UU / Graduation UU) - 2005
Schmitt, H. (27.05.2005). The effects of veterinary antibiotics on soil microbial communities. (187 p.).
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Research grants

  • EU FP7: Effort against antimicrobial resistance
  • German Environmental Protection Agency: Risk assessment of the role of antibiotics for the occurrence of resistance in the environment
  • SKB, NL: occurrence of antibiotic resistance in manured soils – a pilot study
  • German Environmental Protection Agency: Inventory of soil biodiversity monitoring techniques
  • NWO ERGO grant: Baseline of soil functioning
  • NWO VENI scholarship: Microbial functioning of soil – does diversity matter?
  • EU STREP Project ERAPharm: Impact of antibiotics on environmental microorganisms and development of antimicrobial resistance
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  • Veterinary sciences: Veterinary public health and food safety
  • Summer school Toxico9logy and Environmental health
  • Summer school Biological agents in the Environment
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Full name
dr. H. Schmitt Contact details
Onbekend Gebouw

Onbekend 9999
Room 3.13
The Netherlands

Nieuw Gildestein

Bolognalaan 50
Room 3.57
The Netherlands

Phone number (direct) +31 30 253 5372
Postal address
Postbus 80.175
3508 TD    UTRECHT
The Netherlands
Gegenereerd op 2017-10-21 12:16:49
Last updated 18.07.2016