Dr. C.J. (Corette) Wierenga

Hugo R. Kruytgebouw
Padualaan 8
Kamer N.511
3584 CH Utrecht

Dr. C.J. (Corette) Wierenga

Universitair hoofddocent
Cell Biology
030 253 2659
c.j.wierenga@uu.nl

Selected publications:

  • Bijlsma A, Omrani A, Spoelder M, Verharen JPH, Bauer L, Cornelis C, de Zwart B, van Dorland R, Vanderschuren LJMJ, Wierenga CJ (2022) Social play is critical for the development of prefrontal inhibitory synapses and cognitive flexibility in rats. Journal of Neuroscience, in press. 
  • Liang J, Kruijssen DLH, Verschuuren ACJ, Voesenek BJB, Benavides F, Sáez Gonzalez M, Ruiter M, Wierenga CJ (2021) Axonal CB1 receptors mediate inhibitory bouton formation via cAMP increase. Journal of Neuroscience, 41: 8279-8296.
  • Herstel LJ, Wierenga CJ (2021) Network control through coordinated inhibition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 67: 34-41.
  • Ruiter M, Herstel LJ, Wierenga CJ (2020) Reduction of dendritic inhibition in CA1 pyramidal neurons in amyloidosis models of early Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 78: 951-964.
  • Hu HY, Dennis L.H. Kruijssen DLH, Frias CP, Rózsa B, Hoogenraad CC, Wierenga CJ (2019) Endocannabinoid signaling mediates local dendritic coordination between excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Cell Reports 27: 666-675
  • Frias CP, Liang J, Bresser T, Scheefhals L, van Kesteren M, van Dorland R, Hu HY, Bodzeta A, van Bergen en Henegouwen PMP, Hoogenraad CC, Wierenga CJ (2019) Semaphorin4D induces inhibitory synapse formation by rapid  stabilization of presynaptic boutons via MET co-activation. Journal of Neuroscience 39: 4221-4237.
  • Wierenga CJ (2017) Live imaging of inhibitory axons: Synapse formation as a dynamic trial-and-error process. Brain Research Bulletin 129: 43-49.
  • Müllner F, Wierenga CJ*, Bonhoeffer T* (2015) Precision of inhibition: Dendritic inhibition by individual GABAergic synapses on hippocampal pyramidal cells is confined in space and time. Neuron 87, 576-589. * co-senior author
  • Wierenga CJ, Becker N, Bonhoeffer T (2008) GABAergic synapses are formed without the involvement of dendritic protrusions. Nature Neurosci, 11: 1044-1052.

Publicaties

2022

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Maffei, A., Chiappalone, M., Fattore, L., Torres, E. B., Tremblay, M-È., & Wierenga, C. J. (2022). Editorial: Women in neuroscience. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 16, [1032506]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2022.1032506
Bijlsma, A., Omrani, A., Spoelder, M., Verharen, J. P. H., Bauer, L., Cornelis, C., de Zwart, B., van Dorland, R., Vanderschuren, L. J. M. J., & Wierenga, C. J. (2022). Social play behavior is critical for the development of prefrontal inhibitory synapses and cognitive flexibility in rats. Journal of Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0524-22.2022

2021

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Peerboom, C., & Wierenga, C. J. (2021). The postnatal GABA shift: A developmental perspective. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 124, 179-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.01.024
Ruiter, M., Lützkendorf, C., Liang, J., & Wierenga, C. J. (2021). Amyloid-β Oligomers Induce only Mild Changes to Inhibitory Bouton Dynamics. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Reports, 5(1), 153-160. https://doi.org/10.3233/ADR-200291
Liang, J., Kruijssen, D. L. H., Verschuuren, A. C. J., Voesenek, B. J. B., Benavides, F. F. W., Gonzalez, M. S., Ruiter, M., & Wierenga, C. J. (2021). Axonal CB1 Receptors Mediate Inhibitory Bouton Formation via cAMP Increase and PKA. Journal of Neuroscience, 41(40), 8279-8296. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0851-21.2021
Lindhout, F. W., Portegies, S., Kooistra, R., Herstel, L. J., Stucchi, R., Hummel, J. J. A., Scheefhals, N., Katrukha, E. A., Altelaar, M., MacGillavry, H. D., Wierenga, C. J., & Hoogenraad, C. C. (2021). Centrosome-mediated microtubule remodeling during axon formation in human iPSC-derived neurons. EMBO Journal, 40(10), 1-17. [e106798]. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020106798
Homberg, J. R., Adan, R. A. H., Alenina, N., Asiminas, A., Bader, M., Beckers, T., Begg, D. P., Blokland, A., Burger, M. E., van Dijk, G., Eisel, U. L. M., Elgersma, Y., Englitz, B., Fernandez-Ruiz, A., Fitzsimons, C. P., van Dam, A-M., Gass, P., Grandjean, J., Havekes, R., ... Genzel, L. (2021). The continued need for animals to advance brain research. Neuron, 109(15), 2374-2379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2021.07.015
Herstel, L. J., & Wierenga, C. J. (2021). Network control through coordinated inhibition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 67, 34-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2020.08.001

2020

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Genzel, L., Adan, R., Berns, A., van den Beucken, J. J. J. P., Blokland, A., Boddeke, E. H. W. G. M., Bogers, W. M., Bontrop, R., Bulthuis, R., Bousema, T., Clevers, H., Coenen, T. C. J. J., van Dam, A. M., Deen, P. M. T., van Dijk, K. W., Eggen, B. J. L., Elgersma, Y., Erdogan, I., Englitz, B., ... Homberg, J. R. (2020). Correction: How the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the necessity of animal research. Current Biology, 30(21), 4328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.10.033
Ruiter, M., Herstel, L. J., Wierenga, C. J., & Ma, T. (2020). Reduction of Dendritic Inhibition in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons in Amyloidosis Models of Early Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 78(3), 951-964. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200527
Lindhout, F. W., Kooistra, R., Portegies, S., Herstel, L. J., Stucchi, R., Snoek, B. L., Altelaar, M., MacGillavry, H. D., Wierenga, C. J., & Hoogenraad, C. C. (2020). Quantitative mapping of transcriptome and proteome dynamics during polarization of human iPSC-derived neurons. eLife, 9. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58124
Genzel, L., Adan, R., Berns, A., van den Beucken, J., Blokland, A., Boddeke, E. H. W. G. M., Bogers, W. M., Bontrop, R., Bulthuis, R., Bousema, T., Clevers, H., Coenen, T. C. J. J., Dam, A-M. V., Deen, P. M. T., van Dijk, K. W., Eggen, B. J. L., Elgersma, Y., Erdogan, I., Englitz, B., ... Homberg, J. R. (2020). How the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the necessity of animal research. Current Biology, 30(18), R1014-R1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.08.030

2019

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Kruijssen, D. L. H., & Wierenga, C. J. (2019). Single Synapse LTP: A Matter of Context? Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 13, [496]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00496
Frias, C. P., Liang, J., Bresser, T., Scheefhals, L., van Kesteren, M., van Dorland, R., Hu, H. Y., Bodzeta, A., van Bergen En Henegouwen, P. M. P., Hoogenraad, C. C., & Wierenga, C. J. (2019). Semaphorin4D Induces Inhibitory Synapse Formation by Rapid Stabilization of Presynaptic Boutons via MET Coactivation. Journal of Neuroscience, 39(22), 4221-4237. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0215-19.2019
Hu, H. Y., Kruijssen, D. L. H., Frias, C. P., Rózsa, B., Hoogenraad, C. C., & Wierenga, C. J. (2019). Endocannabinoid Signaling Mediates Local Dendritic Coordination between Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses. Cell Reports, 27(3), 666-675.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.078

2018

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Niculescu, D., Michaelsen-Preusse, K., Güner, Ü., van Dorland, R., Wierenga, C. J., & Lohmann, C. (2018). A BDNF-Mediated Push-Pull Plasticity Mechanism for Synaptic Clustering. Cell Reports, 24(8), 2063-2074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.07.073
Nijhof, S. L., Vinkers, C. H., van Geelen, S. M., Duijff, S. N., Achterberg, E. J. M., der Net, J. V., Veltkamp, R. C., Grootenhuis, M. A., de Putte, E. M. V., Hillegers, M. H. J., der Brug, A. W. V., Wierenga, C. J., Benders, M. J. N. L., Engels, R. C. M. E., der Ent, C. K. V., Vanderschuren, L. J. M. J., & Lesscher, H. M. B. (2018). Healthy play, better coping: The importance of play for the development of children in health and disease. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 95, 421-429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.09.024
Schulte, J. T., Wierenga, C. J., & Bruining, H. (2018). Chloride transporters and GABA polarity in developmental, neurological and psychiatric conditions. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 90, 260-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.05.001
Schätzle, P., Esteves da Silva, M., Tas, R. P., Katrukha, E. A., Hu, H. Y., Wierenga, C. J., Kapitein, L. C., & Hoogenraad, C. C. (2018). Activity-Dependent Actin Remodeling at the Base of Dendritic Spines Promotes Microtubule Entry. Current Biology, 28(13), 2081-2093.e6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.05.004

Overige resultaten

Pereira Frias, C. S., Bresser, T., Scheefhals, L., van Bergen en Henegouwen, P. M. P., Hoogenraad, C. C., & Wierenga, C. J. (2018). Molecular pathway underlying bouton stabilization by Semaphorin4D during inhibitory synapse formation.. https://doi.org/10.1101/100271

2017

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Lenz, M., Galanis, C., Müller-Dahlhaus, F., Opitz, A., Wierenga, C. J., Szabó, G., Ziemann, U., Deller, T., Funke, K., & Vlachos, A. (2017). P292 10 Hz rTMS induces long-term depression of GABAergic neurotransmission. Clinical Neurophysiology, 128(3), e152-e153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2016.10.400
Wierenga, C. J. (2017). Live imaging of inhibitory axons: Synapse formation as a dynamic trial-and-error process. Brain Research Bulletin, 129, 43-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.09.018

2016

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Lenz, M., Galanis, C., Müller-Dahlhaus, F., Opitz, A., Wierenga, C. J., Szabó, G., Ziemann, U., Deller, T., Funke, K., & Vlachos, A. (2016). Repetitive magnetic stimulation induces plasticity of inhibitory synapses. Nature Communications [E], 7, [10020]. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10020
Kellner, Y., Fricke, S., Kramer, S., Iobbi, C., Wierenga, C. J., Schwab, M. E., Korte, M., & Zagrebelsky, M. (2016). Nogo-A controls structural plasticity at dendritic spines by rapidly modulating actin dynamics. Hippocampus, 26(6), 816-31. https://doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22565
Harschnitz, O., van den Berg, L. H., Johansen, L. E., Jansen, M. D., Kling, S., Vieira de Sá, R., Vlam, L., van Rheenen, W., Karst, H., Wierenga, C. J., Pasterkamp, R. J., & van der Pol, W. L. (2016). Autoantibody pathogenicity in a multifocal motor neuropathy induced pluripotent stem cell-derived model. Annals of Neurology, 80(1), 71-88. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.24680

Overige resultaten

Omrani, A., Spoelder, M., van Dorland, R., Cornelis, C., Vanderschuren, L. J. M. J., & Wierenga, C. J. (2016). Deprivation of social play behavior results in decreased inhibition in adult prefrontal cortex and associated behavioral changes in rats.
Hu, H. Y., Kruijssen, D. L. H., Rosza, B., & Wierenga, C. J. (2016). Dendritic coordination between excitatory and inhibitory plasticity.
Wierenga, C. J. (2016). Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. San Diego CA, USA..

2015

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Esteves da Silva, M., Adrian, M., Schätzle, P., Lipka, J., Watanabe, T., Cho, S., Futai, K., Wierenga, C. J., Kapitein, L. C., & Hoogenraad, C. C. (2015). Positioning of AMPA Receptor-Containing Endosomes Regulates Synapse Architecture. Cell Reports [E], 13(5), 933-943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.09.062
Müllner, F. E., Wierenga, C. J., & Bonhoeffer, T. (2015). Precision of Inhibition: Dendritic Inhibition by Individual GABAergic Synapses on Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells Is Confined in Space and Time. Neuron, 87(3), 576-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2015.07.003

2014

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Gomis-Rüth, S., Stiess, M., Wierenga, C. J., Meyn, L., & Bradke, F. (2014). Single-cell axotomy of cultured hippocampal neurons integrated in neuronal circuits. Nature Protocols, 9(5), 1028-1037. https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2014.069
Adrian, M., Kusters, R., Wierenga, C. J., Storm, C., Hoogenraad, C. C., & Kapitein, L. C. (2014). Barriers in the brain: resolving dendritic spine morphology and compartmentalization. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 8, 142. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2014.00142
Hoogenraad, C., & Wierenga, C. (2014). Neurons, Overview. In M. J. Aminoff, & R. B. Daroff (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (2 ed., Vol. 3, pp. 456-458). Academic Press Inc..

2013

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Schuemann, A., Klawiter, A., Bonhoeffer, T., & Wierenga, C. J. (2013). Structural plasticity of GABAergic axons is regulated by network activity and GABAA receptor activation. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 7, 113. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncir.2013.00113
Vogels, T. P., Froemke, R. C., Doyon, N., Gilson, M., Haas, J. S., Liu, R., Maffei, A., Miller, P., Wierenga, C. J., Woodin, M. A., Zenke, F., & Sprekeler, H. (2013). Inhibitory synaptic plasticity: spike timing-dependence and putative network function. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 7, 119. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncir.2013.00119
Schuemann, A., Klawiter, A., Bonhoeffer, T., & Wierenga, C. J. (2013). Structural plasticity of GABAergic axons is regulated by network activity and GABAA receptor activation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7, 113.
Vogels, T. P., Froemke, R. C., Doyon, N., Gilson, M., Haas, J. S., Liu, R., Maffei, A., Miller, P., Wierenga, C. J., Woodin, M. A., Zenke, F., & Sprekeler, H. (2013). Inhibitory synaptic plasticity: spike timing-dependence and putative network function. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 7, 119.
Frias, C. P., & Wierenga, C. J. (2013). Activity-dependent adaptations in inhibitory axons. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience [E], 7, 219. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2013.00219

Overige resultaten

Estevez da Silva, M., Kapitein, L. C., Adrian, M., Wierenga, C. J., & Hoogenraad, C. C. (2013). Controlled delivery of AMPA receptors-containing recycling endosomes to excitatory synapsis.. Poster session presented at Gordon Research Conference-Excitatory Synapsis & Brain Function, Les Diablerets, Switzerland.
Estevez da Silva, M., Kapitein, L. C., Adrian, M., Wierenga, C. J., & Hoogenraad, C. C. (2013). Controlled delivery of AMPA receptors-containing recycling endosomes to excitatory synapsis. Poster session presented at 20th Annual ONWAR PhD meeting, Woudschoten, the Netherlands.
Estevez da Silva, M., Kapitein, L. C., Adrian, M., Wierenga, C. J., & Hoogenraad, C. C. (2013). Controlled delivery of AMPA receptors-containing recycling endosomes to excitatory synapses. Poster session presented at Gordon Research Seminar-Excitatory Synapsis & Brain Funtion, Les Diablerets, Switzerland.
Pereira Frias, C. S., Hoogenraad, C. C., & Wierenga, C. J. (2013). Two-photon microscopy of dunamic changes in inhibitory axons induced by Sema4D. Poster session presented at Dutch meeting on Molecular and Cellular Biophysics, Veldhoven, The Netherlands.
Pereira Frias, C. S., Hoogenraad, C. C., & Wierenga, C. J. (2013). Two-photon microscopy of dynamic changes in inhibitory axonal boutons induced by Sema4D. Poster session presented at ESN-FENS Conference "The Neurobiology of Synapsis and their Dysfunction", Stresa, Italy.
Schuemann, A., Klawiter, A., Bonhoeffer, T., & Wierenga, C. J. (2013). Structural plasticity of GABAergic axons is regulated by network activity and GABAA receptor activation. Poster session presented at Gordon Conference on Inhibition in the CNS, Les Diablerets, Switzerland.
Müllner, F. E., Wierenga, C. J., & Bonhoeffer, T. (2013). Inhibition of dendritic calcium transients by individual GABAergic synapsis is distance and spike-timing dependent. Poster session presented at Gordon Conference on Dendrites: Molecules, Structure & Function, Les Diablerets, Switzerland.

2011

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Keck, T., Scheuss, V., Jacobsen, R. I., Wierenga, C. J., Eysel, U. T., Bonhoeffer, T., & Hübener, M. (2011). Loss of sensory input causes rapid structural changes of inhibitory neurons in adult mouse visual cortex. Neuron, 71(5), 869-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2011.06.034
Keck, T., Scheuss, V., Jacobsen, I., Wierenga, C. J., Eysel, U., Bonhoeffer, T., & Hübener, M. (2011). Large decrease in inhibitory pre- and postsynaptic structures following retinal lesions. Neuron, 71, 869-882.

2010

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Wierenga, C. J., Müllner, F. E., Rinke, I., Keck, T., Stein, V., & Bonhoeffer, T. (2010). Molecular and electrophysiological characterization of GFP-expressing CA1 interneurons in GAD65-GFP mice. PLoS One, 5(12), e15915. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015915

Overige resultaten

A., S., Bonhoeffer, T., & Wierenga, C. J. (2010). Activity-dependent regulation of GABAergic bouton turnover: 551.6. Abstract from 40th Annual Meeting Neuroscience 2010, San Diego, California, United States.

2008

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Gomis-Rüth, S., Wierenga, C. J., & Bradke, F. (2008). Plasticity of polarization: changing axonal and dendritic identity in mature neurons. Current Biology, 18, 992-1000. [18].
Becker, N., Wierenga, C. J., Fonseca, R., Bonhoeffer, T., & Nägerl, U. V. (2008). Presynaptic boutons show a large degree of turnover after hippocampal LTD resulting in the removal of synaptic connections. Neuron, 60(590-597), 590-597.
Gomis-Rüth, S., Wierenga, C. J., & Bradke, F. (2008). Plasticity of polarization: changing dendrites into axons in neurons integrated in neuronal circuits. Current Biology, 18(13), 992-1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.06.026
Becker, N., Wierenga, C. J., Fonseca, R., Bonhoeffer, T., & Nägerl, U. V. (2008). LTD induction causes morphological changes of presynaptic boutons and reduces their contacts with spines. Neuron, 60(4), 590-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2008.09.018
Wierenga, C. J., Becker, N., & Bonhoeffer, T. (2008). GABAergic synapses are formed without the involvement of dendritic protrusions. Nature Neuroscience, 11(9), 1044-52. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2180

2007

Overige resultaten

Becker, N., Wierenga, C. J., Bonhoeffer, T., & Nägerl, U. V. (2007). Hippocampal LTD enhances bouton turnover and removes synaptic connections: 789.20. Abstract from Abstr Soc Neurosci 33, United Kingdom.
Wierenga, C. J., & Bonhoeffer, T. (2007). Formation of GABAergic synapses in hippocampal slice cultures occurs largely without the involvement of filopodia. Abstract from Abstr Soc Neurosci 33, United Kingdom.

2006

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Wierenga, C. J., Walsh, M. F., & Turrigiano, G. G. (2006). Temporal regulation of the expression locus of homeostatic plasticity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96(4), 2127-33. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00107.2006

2005

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Wierenga, C. J., Ibata, K., & Turrigiano, G. G. (2005). Postsynaptic expression of homeostatic plasticity at neocortical synapses. Journal of Neuroscience, 25(11), 2895-905. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5217-04.2005

Overige resultaten

Wierenga, C. J., Walsh, M. F., & Turrigiano, G. G. (2005). Temporal regulation of the expression locus for homeostatic synaptic plasticity in visual cortex cultures. Abstract from Abstr Soc Neurosci 31, United Kingdom.

2004

Overige resultaten

Wierenga, C. J., & Turrigiano, G. G. (2004). Homeostatic scaling of excitatory synapses does not alter short-term synaptic dynamics. Abstract from FENS Abstr, 2, United Kingdom.

2003

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Wierenga, C. J., & Wadman, W. J. (2003). Excitatory inputs to CA1 interneurons show selective synaptic dynamics. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90(2), 811-21. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00865.2002
Wierenga, C. J., & Wadman, W. J. (2003). Functional relation between interneuron input and population activity in the rat hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 area. Neuroscience, 118(4), 1129-39.

Overige resultaten

Wierenga, C. J., Nelson, S. B., & Turrigiano, G. G. (2003). Does activity blockade induce presynaptic changes in visual cortex cultures?. Abstract from Abstr Soc Neurosci 29, United Kingdom.

2000

Overige resultaten

Wierenga, C. J., Werkman, T. R., & Wadman, W. J. (2000). Feedforward and feedback input to interneurons in the CA1 area of the rat hippocampus. 69.6. Abstract from Abstr Soc Neurosci 26, United Kingdom.

1999

Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Wierenga, C. J., & Wadman, W. J. (1999). Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons after kindling epileptogenesis. Journal of Neurophysiology, 82(3), 1352-62.

Overige resultaten

Wierenga, C. J., & Wadman, W. J. (1999). Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons after kindling epileptogenesis. R71. Abstract from Pflügers Arch – Eur J Physiol , United Kingdom.
Kortekaas, P., Wierenga, C. J., & Wadman, W. J. (1999). Spatial redistribution of the low voltage activated calcium current in the developing rat pyramidal CA1 neurons. R69. Abstract from Pflügers Arch – Eur J Physiol , United Kingdom.
Wierenga, C. J., Gorter, J., & Wadman, W. J. (1999). Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons after kindling epileptogenesis. 291.2. Abstract from Abstr Soc Neurosci 25, United Kingdom.