The role of accountability and liability in protecting the living environment

Emissions of toxic substances, such as nitrogen compounds or PFAS, put (severe) strains on the quality and safety of the living environment. To what extent can liability law be used to improve the quality of the living environment? Under what circumstances can corporations and/or their directors be held accountable and liable, either under criminal law or tort law for their role in the emissions of these substances? And when can the state be held liable for a failure to prevent degradation of the living environment?