The aim of the TEMPEST project (2008-2014) was to investigate how a public health approach (employing incentive schemes such as taxing of foods) and an individual-educational approach may complement each other to encourage young people to adopt a healthy lifestyle. Public health approaches to prevent overweight are important as they are easy-to-implement and can be employed independently from active participation of the target group. However, they may be powerless in an ‘obesogenic’ environment that is characterized by huge amounts of food and inactivity temptations. The TEMPEST project has introduced the novel concept of self-regulatory competence for dealing with such temptations as the key factor in prevention of overweight in nine European countries which vary in their public health policies.