This domain covers the topics One Health, Cardiovascular Research, Food & Health and Translational Neuroscience. In all these topics, microbes and/or inflammation are increasingly recognized as major determinants of health and disease in humans and animals. While it is clear that infections become clinically manifest largely through collateral damage of the immune response to the pathogen, more recent discoveries imply the microbiome and hyper-activation and dysfunction of the innate immune system as contributors to chronic inflammatory disease and a variety of underlyinig diseases. These diseases seem under genetic control but are also influenced by environmental factors (such as food) which prompt a different kind of research and opens up new perspectives for therapy and intervention.