Gold-palladium bimetallic catalysts for selective hydrogenation
Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-UPMC, Paris
It has been demonstrated that catalytic performance can be improved by combining two metals . The incorporation of the second metal leads to changes in the atomic and electronic structure of the nanoparticles and provides numerous advantages compared to monometallic catalysts . In particular, five phenomena can be described :
- Geometric effects, the active sites are altered due to geometric modifications.
- Electronic effects, the active sites are modified by electron transfer between metals.
- Stabilizing effects, by inhibiting sintering or suppressing the formation of carbonaceous deposits on the catalysts.
- Synergistic effects, both metals participate in the chemical bonding.
- Bi-functional effects, each metal provides a different function in the reaction mechanism.
After a brief presentation on the issue of bimetallic catalysts, the presentation will focus on the Au-Pd system for the selective hydrogenation of butadiene into butenes. This reaction is performed in the presence of an excess of alkene to mimic a process of purification of alkenes, necessary before alkene polymerization. Monometallic gold catalysts show a high selectivity in this reaction but a rather low activity . The addition of a controlled amount of palladium to the gold nanoparticles induces enhanced catalytic activity compared to monometallic gold catalysts without loss of selectivity [5,6].
Different methods of catalyst preparation will be described. The presentation will also focus on the issue of the characterization of the bimetallic character of the Au-Pd catalysts. The issue of bimetallic particle restructuring will also be discussed [6,7,8].
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