Our Research - Structural Neurobiology
Receptor conformational plasticity and ligand binding
The SorCS2-proneurotrophin signaling system is vital for fundamental functions of our brain, such as metabolic regulation, neuronal wiring and long-term memory formation, and its dysfunction is strongly linked to bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and ADHD.
The structures of unliganded SorCS2 ectodomain and of SorCS2 in complex with nerve growth factor (NGF) reveal the six-domain composition of SorCS2 and substantial SorCS2 plasticity. The NGF dimer binds to a SorCS2 ten-bladed beta-propeller and may trigger a large SorCS2 conformational change.
N. Leloup, L.M.P. Chataigner and B.J. Janssen. (2018) ‘Structural insights into SorCS2-Nerve Growth Factor complex formation.’ Nature Comms 9:2979 1-10
A synaptic adhesion molecule with an unusual fold
Teneurins help in the development and function of our brain. Their extracellular part can, for example, span the synapse to control its organization and partner matching. In a collaboration with Elena Seiradake (University of Oxford) we have solved the cryo-EM structure of the Teneurin 3 extracellular core. Unusual for an adhesion molecule, the structure reveals a super-fold with eight sub-domains in an intricate arrangement. This Teneurin structure is the first structure solved with the Talos Arctica electron microscope at Utrecht University.
V.A. Jackson, D.H. Meijer, M. Carrasquero, L.S. van Bezouwen, D.L. Edward, C. Kleanthouse, B.J. Janssen and E. Seiradake. (2018) ‘Structures of Teneurin adhesion receptors reveal an ancient fold for cell-cell interaction.’ Nature Comms 9:1079 1-9
Receptor oligomeric and conformational changes control tissue homeostasis
The transmembrane receptor Sortilin controls the homeostasis of tissues in our body, including our nervous system. Sortilin recognizes and binds a broad range of protein and peptide molecules at the extracellular space between cells. It then shuttles this cargo to the cell inside and releases these ligands for degradation in lysosomes. Sortilin itself is transported back to the cell surface for another round of cargo shuttling.
By using a combination of structural, biophysical and cellular tools we have shown that low pH-induced Sortilin dimerization and conformational change trigger the release of cargo.
N. Leloup, P. Lössl, D.H. Meijer, M. Brennich, A.J. Heck, D.M. Thies-Weesie and B.J. Janssen. (2017) ‘Low pH-induced conformational change and dimerization of sortilin triggers endocytosed ligand release.’ Nature Comms 8:1708 1-16
Protein conformations and interactions in control of adhesion
To ensure that nerves can transmit signals rapidly through our nervous system, they are enwrapped by a fatty substance called myelin. The protein myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is responsible for the connection and communication between neurons and myelin-forming cells. When neurons are damaged, for example due to spinal cord injury or a stroke, MAG actively inhibits recovery.
We resolved 3-dimensional structures of the MAG part that bridges the neuronal and myelin cell membranes and that of MAG in complex with its neuronal ligand, a glycolipid. These structures reveal how MAG recognizes its ligand and show that MAG dimerizes through its membrane-proximal domains. Both the MAG dimer formation and the interaction with the glycolipid are important for MAG signaling.
M.F. Pronker, S. Lemstra, J. Snijder, A.J. Heck, D.M. Thies-Weesie, R.J. pasterkamp and B.J. Janssen. (2016) 'Structural basis of myelin-associated glycoprotein adhesion and signalling.' Nature Comms 7:13584 1-3