Replacement & NAMs
The R for Replacement encompasses initiatives that focus on the direct replacement of laboratory animals with animal-free alternatives. This can be done using computer models and cell and tissue culture methods, but also, when possible, by testing directly on humans. In education, for example, artificial plastic rats, bicycle tires and flower petals can be used to teach suture techniques.
The term Replacement is appropriate when talking about the way laboratory animals are used, but essentially excludes animal-free methods that do not directly focus on replacement. This realization has led to an increase in the use of the more inclusive non-animal methods or new approach methods (NAMs). NAMs are all methods that do not use laboratory animals, including methods that are not directly aimed at replacing existing laboratory animal use.