In Citizenship in Classical Athens, Prof. Josine Blok (Ancient History and Classical Civilization) proposes a new view of citizenship in classical Athens, bringing together hitherto fundamentally distinct approaches to the classical community.
What did citizenship really mean in classical Athens? It is conventionally understood as characterised by holding political office. Since only men could do so, only they were considered to be citizens, and the community (polis) has appeared primarily as the scene of men's political actions. However, Athenian law defined citizens not by political office, but by descent.