The department of History and Art History of Utrecht University and the Netherlands Atlantic Association (Atlantische Commissie) are proud to announce that on 27 November 2017 they will co-host a symposium on the history of ‘NATO and (counter)intelligence’.
According to many, both in academia and in the policy world, NATO and intelligence is an oxymoron. To them, the appointment of Arndt Freytag von Loringhoven as NATO’s first Assistant Secretary-General for Intelligence and Security almost a year ago must have come as a surprise and should be a clear sign of the recognition of today’s relevance of intelligence to NATO’s alliance.
However, NATO has been involved in (counter)intelligence much longer than often thought. The occasion of James L. Mader’s defense of his Ph.D. dissertation about NATO’s 450th Counterintelligence Detachment in the 1950s will be used to organize a symposium about NATO and (counter)intelligence one day prior. James Mader will present the main findings of his research, stressing the major implications for theoretical notions about international intelligence cooperation. Counterintelligence will also be the main topic of Daniel Pronk’s presentation. He will illustrate the efforts of The Netherlands as a NATO member state to thwart Soviet espionage on its territory in the 1970s. Joseph Gordon, who was a counterintelligence officer in Germany in the latter part of the 1960s and is currently professor for intelligence analysis at the U.S. National Intelligence University, will address the tension between intelligence sharing and the need to protect NATO’s secrets, then and now.
|13:30 - 14:00||Coffee|
|14:00 - 14:15||Opening by Bram Boxhoorn, director of the Netherlands Atlantic Association (Atlantische Commissie)|
|14:15 - 14:50||Introduction to the theme by Eleni Braat|
|14:50 - 15:30||Diplomat Soldiers: A study of Military Counterintelligence Cooperation in NATO, 1951-1960 by James Mader (incl. at least 10 minutes Q&A)|
|15:00 - 15:30||Tea|
|15:30 - 16:10||Watchers on the Invisible Front: The Counterintelligence Situation in the Netherlands at the Dawn of the ''Dangerous Decade'' by Daniel G. Pronk (incl. at least 10 minutes Q&A)|
|16:10 - 16:45||Intelligence Analysis Cooperation Among North Atlantic Allies: Tension between Security and Sharing by Joseph S. Gordon (incl at least 10 minutes Q&A)|
|16:45 - 17:00||Closing words by Bob de Graaff|
|17:00 - 17:45||Drinks|
Diplomat Soldiers: A Study of Military Counterintelligence Cooperation In NATO, 1951-1960 - James L. Mader
In January 1951 NATO established a counterintelligence unit within the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. This fact is consistently overlooked by commentators on NATO, and especially intelligence sharing, within the Alliance. If one were to survey current research on the topic of intelligence sharing in NATO, it would seem it just doesn’t happen. An examination of archival records concerning counterintelligence in the Alliance reveals intelligence cooperation has existed at an operational level since the very foundation of SHAPE. The 450th CIC Det, as the only example of a counterintelligence organization within an international organization, provides a set of lessons, methods, and processes to be integrated into future institutions. By taking the lessons and implementing them in future research and policy, similar mistakes can be avoided. The gaps in research of intelligence studies, and more specifically in international intelligence cooperation are significant. Both as a study of a discipline and as historical research, the field is in need of further examination of historical events to contextualize the use of intelligence and counterintelligence in diverse and significant historical events. Fundamentally the 450 th CIC DET proves an intelligence organization can work within an international organization, in this case the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Watchers on the Invisible Front: The Counterintelligence Situation in the Netherlands at the Dawn of the “Dangerous Decade” - Daniel G. Pronk
The major threats from espionage to the Netherlands were the Soviet intelligence services KGB and GRU, and the intelligence services of the GDR, Czechoslovakia and Poland. Their main targets at the time were Science and Technology and their applicability for military purposes, NATO headquarters and installations on Dutch territory, and the Netherlands armed forces. In addition, these services were very active in exerting political influence in Dutch society. Between 1975 and 1978, four Soviet intelligence officers were expelled from the Netherlands after it had been established that they had been collecting military information, particularly on advanced electronics and aircraft fuels. All were employed at the Soviet trade mission and the Intourist Bureau and were identified as members of the GRU. During the same period, the Netherlands military intelligence services paid a great deal of attention to the phenomenon of East-European trucks. The movements of these trucks could not always be associated with their cargo and destination, while especially the conduct of the co-drivers attracted attention. Finally, the travel activities by the Soviet military attaché and his assistant were rather intensive at the time. They were visiting all seaports in the Netherlands and were collecting information on these ports from sources.
Intelligence Analysis Cooperation Among North Atlantic Allies: Tension between Security and Sharing - Joseph S. Gordon
Many intelligence professionals and consumers of intelligence in Europe and North America recognize that sharing intelligence analysis among allies is most beneficial. However, concerns about the protection of sources and methods in addition to the question of trust that information would be properly protected or not misused remain huge obstacles to realizing this goal. This lecture will discuss various efforts by NATO and the EU to establish intelligence-sharing since the end of the Cold War as the threats to Euro-Atlantic security have become more diverse and complicated. On the NATO side, it will address the NATO Intelligence Fusion Center established in the UK in 2006 and the Intelligence Division of the International staff at NATO Headquarters in Brussels created in 2016. On the EU side, it will focus on the role of Europol and the European Counter-Terrorism Center established in 2016. The lecture will conclude with suggestions for further intelligence sharing, as the challenges to Euro-Atlantic security are increasing. While sharing has improved of late focusing on terrorism, we have hardly begun to properly address such issues as the rise of Russia, the impact of populism, instability in the region and the subsequent refugee crisis, the greatest since World War II.