27 November 2017 from 13:30 to 17:45

Symposium 'NATO and (counter)intelligence'

© iStockphoto.com/Bjoern Meyer

The department of History and Art History of Utrecht University and the Netherlands Atlantic Association (Atlantische Commissie) are proud to announce that on 27 November 2017 they will co-host a symposium on the history of ‘NATO and (counter)intelligence’.

According to many, both in academia and in the policy world, NATO and intelligence is an oxymoron. To them, the appointment of Arndt Freytag von Loringhoven as NATO’s first Assistant Secretary-General for Intelligence and Security almost a year ago must have come as a surprise and should be a clear sign of the recognition of today’s relevance of intelligence to NATO’s alliance.

However, NATO has been involved in (counter)intelligence much longer than often thought. The occasion of James L. Mader’s defense of his Ph.D. dissertation about NATO’s 450th Counterintelligence Detachment in the 1950s will be used to organize a symposium about NATO and (counter)intelligence one day prior. James Mader will present the main findings of his research, stressing the major implications for theoretical notions about international intelligence cooperation. Counterintelligence will also be the main topic of Daniel Pronk’s presentation. He will illustrate the efforts of The Netherlands as a NATO member state to thwart Soviet espionage on its territory in the 1970s. Joseph Gordon, who was a counterintelligence officer in Germany in the latter part of the 1960s and is currently professor for intelligence analysis at the U.S. National Intelligence University, will address the tension between intelligence sharing and the need to protect NATO’s secrets, then and now.

13:30 - 14:00  Coffee
14:00 - 14:15  Opening by Bram Boxhoorn, director of the Netherlands Atlantic Association (Atlantische Commissie)
14:15 - 14:50  Introduction to the theme by Eleni Braat
14:50 - 15:30  Diplomat Soldiers: A study of Military Counterintelligence Cooperation in NATO, 1951-1960 by James Mader (incl. at least 10 minutes Q&A)
15:00 - 15:30  Tea
15:30 - 16:10  Watchers on the Invisible Front: The Counterintelligence Situation in the Netherlands at the Dawn of the ''Dangerous Decade'' by Daniel G. Pronk (incl. at least 10 minutes Q&A)
16:10 - 16:45  Intelligence Analysis Cooperation Among North Atlantic Allies: Tension between Security and Sharing by Joseph S. Gordon (incl at least 10 minutes Q&A)
16:45 - 17:00  Closing words by Bob de Graaff
17:00 - 17:45  Drinks



Diplomat Soldiers: A Study of Military Counterintelligence Cooperation In NATO, 1951-1960 - James L. Mader

In January 1951 NATO established a counterintelligence unit within the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. This fact is consistently overlooked by commentators on NATO, and especially intelligence sharing, within the Alliance. If one were to survey current research on the topic of intelligence sharing in NATO, it would seem it just doesn’t happen. An examination of archival records concerning counterintelligence in the Alliance reveals intelligence cooperation has existed at an operational level since the very foundation of SHAPE. The 450th CIC Det, as the only example of a counterintelligence organization within an international organization, provides a set of lessons, methods, and processes to be integrated into future institutions. By taking the lessons and implementing them in future research and policy, similar mistakes can be avoided. The gaps in research of intelligence studies, and more specifically in international intelligence cooperation are significant. Both as a study of a discipline and as historical research, the field is in need of further examination of historical events to contextualize the use of intelligence and counterintelligence in diverse and significant historical events. Fundamentally the 450 th CIC DET proves an intelligence organization can work within an international organization, in this case the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Watchers on the Invisible Front: The Counterintelligence Situation in the Netherlands at the Dawn of the “Dangerous Decade” - Daniel G. Pronk

The major threats from espionage to the Netherlands were the Soviet intelligence services KGB and GRU, and the intelligence services of the GDR, Czechoslovakia and Poland. Their main targets at the time were Science and Technology and their applicability for military purposes, NATO headquarters and installations on Dutch territory, and the Netherlands armed forces. In addition, these services were very active in exerting political influence in Dutch society. Between 1975 and 1978, four Soviet intelligence officers were expelled from the Netherlands after it had been established that they had been collecting military information, particularly on advanced electronics and aircraft fuels. All were employed at the Soviet trade mission and the Intourist Bureau and were identified as members of the GRU. During the same period, the Netherlands military intelligence services paid a great deal of attention to the phenomenon of East-European trucks. The movements of these trucks could not always be associated with their cargo and destination, while especially the conduct of the co-drivers attracted attention. Finally, the travel activities by the Soviet military attaché and his assistant were rather intensive at the time. They were visiting all seaports in the Netherlands and were collecting information on these ports from sources.

Intelligence Analysis Cooperation Among North Atlantic Allies: Tension between Security and Sharing - Joseph S. Gordon

Many intelligence professionals and consumers of intelligence in Europe and North America recognize that sharing intelligence analysis among allies is most beneficial. However, concerns about the protection of sources and methods in addition to the question of trust that information would be properly protected or not misused remain huge obstacles to realizing this goal. This lecture will discuss various efforts by NATO and the EU to establish intelligence-sharing since the end of the Cold War as the threats to Euro-Atlantic security have become more diverse and complicated. On the NATO side, it will address the NATO Intelligence Fusion Center established in the UK in 2006 and the Intelligence Division of the International staff at NATO Headquarters in Brussels created in 2016. On the EU side, it will focus on the role of Europol and the European Counter-Terrorism Center established in 2016. The lecture will conclude with suggestions for further intelligence sharing, as the challenges to Euro-Atlantic security are increasing. While sharing has improved of late focusing on terrorism, we have hardly begun to properly address such issues as the rise of Russia, the impact of populism, instability in the region and the subsequent refugee crisis, the greatest since World War II. 

Biographies of the speakers

Eleni Braat is assistant professor of International History at Utrecht University. Previously, she served as the official historian of the Dutch General Intelligence and Security Service (AIVD) and lectured at the Institute for History at Leiden University. Her research interests focus on secret government activities, such as intelligence and international diplomacy, and the political tensions they led to in Europe during the 20th century. She obtained her Ph.D. from the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, with a dissertation on the international disarmament negotiations in the 1920s. She holds an MA with honours in Modern Greek literature from the University of Amsterdam, and a Diplôme d ́études approfondies (DEA) in history with the highest distinction from the École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Paris. 

James L. Mader (1979) has worked for the United States Government since 1999 when he enlisted in the United States Army as a counterintelligence Special Agent. After his discharge, he continued work for the United States Department of Defense. Mr. Mader studied the Liberal Arts at Calvin College and Excelsior College (2001). In 2006, he received a Master of Science degree from American Military University in Strategic Intelligence, with a concentration on Sub-Saharan African predictive analysis, indications and warning problem sets. In 2012, Mr. Mader was awarded a Master of Arts in Philosophy, focused on medieval metaphysics and Thomistic philosophy.

Mr. Mader’s awards include the US Army Superior Civilian Service Award, the Joint Civilian Service Commendation Award, the US Army Commander’s Award for Civilian Service, the Achievement Medal for Civilian Service, the US Army Commendation Medal, the US Army Achievement Medal, two NATO medals, and a number of medals for service and deployments. He received a scholarship to attend the Socrates Society, held by the Aspen Institute. Mr. Mader received certification as a US Army Intelligence Center of Excellence Instructor. He is also a graduate of a numerous US Government training and instruction courses. 

Daniel G. Pronk holds a Master’s degree in International Relations from the Political Science Department of Leiden University. He is also a graduate of the Netherlands Royal Military Academy in Breda. Currently, he is a non-resident Research Fellow at the War Studies Department at the Faculty of Military Sciences of the Netherlands Defense Academy and a PhD researcher in the history of modern transatlantic relations at the University of Amsterdam. He is also a board member of the Netherlands Intelligence Studies Association. 

Joseph S. Gordon is Professor and Colin Powell Chair for Intelligence Analysis at the National Intelligence University (NIU), Washington, DC, where he has taught European security issues and intelligence analysis since 1981. From 1993-2003 he served as an analyst at the Defense Intelligence Agency specializing in European security (serving two peacekeeping tours in the Balkans). From 2003 to 2005, he was Senior DIA Representative at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, after which he returned to the NIU. A highlight of this latter NIU stint was the creation of a graduate certificate program in strategic warning analysis.

He has a BA in politics and Government from Bowdoin College, an MA in European History from the University of Maine, and a PhD in European History from Duke University. He was Mellon Fellow at Duke University and did doctoral research Germans in the French Revolution at the University of Marburg, Germany 1972-1974 as a fellow of the Deutsche Akademische Austauschdienst.

He is a retired colonel from the US Army Reserve, and served on active duty in Germany as a counterintelligence officer from 1965-68.

He has published extensively on European history, psychological operations, intelligence analysis; a book, Strategic Warning Intelligence: History, Challenges, and Prospects, co-authored with Dr. John Gentry, is about to be published by Georgetown University Press.

He was the president of the International Association for Intelligence Education from 2011 to 2015. 

Start date and time
27 November 2017 13:30
End date and time
27 November 2017 17:45