Against the terror
After Napoleon had definitively been defeated in 1815, the regents and peoples of Europe desired peace and safety. After 25 years of war and chaos, the victors of Waterloo laid the foundations for a new European Defense Association (a proto-NAVO, if you will), led by the Duke of Wellington. Building on Napoleonic innovations, new networks, conferences, policies and institutions were designed to consolidate and guard the new post-war order. In order to achieve this, Wellington and the European ministers mobilized countless incapable and reluctant officers, lawyers, spies and other defense workers. Utilizing lots of new instruments – passports, optical telegraphs, joint border inspections and rapid circulation of descriptions of fugitive ‘terroristes’ and ‘assassins’– Europe indeed became safer. That safety, however, came with a high price in the shape of international loans and forced French recovery payments.